Sync to Wine-0_9_5:
[reactos.git] / rosapps / mc / about-nls
1 Notes on the Free Translation Project
2 *************************************
3
4 Free software is going international! The Free Translation Project
5 is a way to get maintainers of free software, translators, and users all
6 together, so that will gradually become able to speak many languages.
7 A few packages already provide translations for their messages.
8
9 If you found this `ABOUT-NLS' file inside a distribution, you may
10 assume that the distributed package does use GNU `gettext' internally,
11 itself available at your nearest GNU archive site. But you do *not*
12 need to install GNU `gettext' prior to configuring, installing or using
13 this package with messages translated.
14
15 Installers will find here some useful hints. These notes also
16 explain how users should proceed for getting the programs to use the
17 available translations. They tell how people wanting to contribute and
18 work at translations should contact the appropriate team.
19
20 When reporting bugs in the `intl/' directory or bugs which may be
21 related to internationalization, you should tell about the version of
22 `gettext' which is used. The information can be found in the
23 `intl/VERSION' file, in internationalized packages.
24
25 One advise in advance
26 =====================
27
28 If you want to exploit the full power of internationalization, you
29 should configure it using
30
31 ./configure --with-included-gettext
32
33 to force usage of internationalizing routines provided within this
34 package, despite the existence of internationalizing capabilities in the
35 operating system where this package is being installed. So far, only
36 the `gettext' implementation in the GNU C library version 2 provides as
37 many features (such as locale alias or message inheritance) as the
38 implementation here. It is also not possible to offer this additional
39 functionality on top of a `catgets' implementation. Future versions of
40 GNU `gettext' will very likely convey even more functionality. So it
41 might be a good idea to change to GNU `gettext' as soon as possible.
42
43 So you need not provide this option if you are using GNU libc 2 or
44 you have installed a recent copy of the GNU gettext package with the
45 included `libintl'.
46
47 INSTALL Matters
48 ===============
49
50 Some packages are "localizable" when properly installed; the
51 programs they contain can be made to speak your own native language.
52 Most such packages use GNU `gettext'. Other packages have their own
53 ways to internationalization, predating GNU `gettext'.
54
55 By default, this package will be installed to allow translation of
56 messages. It will automatically detect whether the system provides
57 usable `catgets' (if using this is selected by the installer) or
58 `gettext' functions. If neither is available, the GNU `gettext' own
59 library will be used. This library is wholly contained within this
60 package, usually in the `intl/' subdirectory, so prior installation of
61 the GNU `gettext' package is *not* required. Installers may use
62 special options at configuration time for changing the default
63 behaviour. The commands:
64
65 ./configure --with-included-gettext
66 ./configure --with-catgets
67 ./configure --disable-nls
68
69 will respectively bypass any pre-existing `catgets' or `gettext' to use
70 the internationalizing routines provided within this package, enable
71 the use of the `catgets' functions (if found on the locale system), or
72 else, *totally* disable translation of messages.
73
74 When you already have GNU `gettext' installed on your system and run
75 configure without an option for your new package, `configure' will
76 probably detect the previously built and installed `libintl.a' file and
77 will decide to use this. This might be not what is desirable. You
78 should use the more recent version of the GNU `gettext' library. I.e.
79 if the file `intl/VERSION' shows that the library which comes with this
80 package is more recent, you should use
81
82 ./configure --with-included-gettext
83
84 to prevent auto-detection.
85
86 By default the configuration process will not test for the `catgets'
87 function and therefore they will not be used. The reasons are already
88 given above: the emulation on top of `catgets' cannot provide all the
89 extensions provided by the GNU `gettext' library. If you nevertheless
90 want to use the `catgets' functions use
91
92 ./configure --with-catgets
93
94 to enable the test for `catgets' (this causes no harm if `catgets' is
95 not available on your system). If you really select this option we
96 would like to hear about the reasons because we cannot think of any
97 good one ourself.
98
99 Internationalized packages have usually many `po/LL.po' files, where
100 LL gives an ISO 639 two-letter code identifying the language. Unless
101 translations have been forbidden at `configure' time by using the
102 `--disable-nls' switch, all available translations are installed
103 together with the package. However, the environment variable `LINGUAS'
104 may be set, prior to configuration, to limit the installed set.
105 `LINGUAS' should then contain a space separated list of two-letter
106 codes, stating which languages are allowed.
107
108 Using This Package
109 ==================
110
111 As a user, if your language has been installed for this package, you
112 only have to set the `LANG' environment variable to the appropriate
113 ISO 639 `LL' two-letter code prior to using the programs in the
114 package. For example, let's suppose that you speak German. At the
115 shell prompt, merely execute `setenv LANG de' (in `csh'),
116 `export LANG; LANG=de' (in `sh') or `export LANG=de' (in `bash'). This
117 can be done from your `.login' or `.profile' file, once and for all.
118
119 An operating system might already offer message localization for
120 many of its programs, while other programs have been installed locally
121 with the full capabilities of GNU `gettext'. Just using `gettext'
122 extended syntax for `LANG' would break proper localization of already
123 available operating system programs. In this case, users should set
124 both `LANGUAGE' and `LANG' variables in their environment, as programs
125 using GNU `gettext' give preference to `LANGUAGE'. For example, some
126 Swedish users would rather read translations in German than English for
127 when Swedish is not available. This is easily accomplished by setting
128 `LANGUAGE' to `sv:de' while leaving `LANG' to `sv'.
129
130 Translating Teams
131 =================
132
133 For the Free Translation Project to be a success, we need interested
134 people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also
135 able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language.
136 Each translation team has its own mailing list, courtesy of Linux
137 International. You may reach your translation team at the address
138 `LL@li.org', replacing LL by the two-letter ISO 639 code for your
139 language. Language codes are *not* the same as the country codes given
140 in ISO 3166. The following translation teams exist, as of August 1997:
141
142 Chinese `zh', Czech `cs', Danish `da', Dutch `nl', English `en',
143 Esperanto `eo', Finnish `fi', French `fr', German `de', Hungarian
144 `hu', Irish `ga', Italian `it', Indonesian `id', Japanese `ja',
145 Korean `ko', Latin `la', Norwegian `no', Persian `fa', Polish
146 `pl', Portuguese `pt', Russian `ru', Slovenian `sl', Spanish `es',
147 Swedish `sv', and Turkish `tr'.
148
149 For example, you may reach the Chinese translation team by writing to
150 `zh@li.org'.
151
152 If you'd like to volunteer to *work* at translating messages, you
153 should become a member of the translating team for your own language.
154 The subscribing address is *not* the same as the list itself, it has
155 `-request' appended. For example, speakers of Swedish can send a
156 message to `sv-request@li.org', having this message body:
157
158 subscribe
159
160 Keep in mind that team members are expected to participate
161 *actively* in translations, or at solving translational difficulties,
162 rather than merely lurking around. If your team does not exist yet and
163 you want to start one, or if you are unsure about what to do or how to
164 get started, please write to `translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to reach the
165 coordinator for all translator teams.
166
167 The English team is special. It works at improving and uniformizing
168 the terminology in use. Proven linguistic skill are praised more than
169 programming skill, here.
170
171 Available Packages
172 ==================
173
174 Languages are not equally supported in all packages. The following
175 matrix shows the current state of internationalization, as of August
176 1997. The matrix shows, in regard of each package, for which languages
177 PO files have been submitted to translation coordination.
178
179 Ready PO files cs da de en es fi fr it ja ko nl no pl pt sl sv
180 .-------------------------------------------------.
181 bash | [] [] [] | 3
182 bison | [] [] [] | 3
183 clisp | [] [] [] [] | 4
184 cpio | [] [] [] [] [] | 5
185 diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] | 5
186 enscript | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 6
187 fileutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 10
188 findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 8
189 flex | [] [] [] [] | 4
190 gcal | [] [] [] [] [] | 5
191 gettext | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 11
192 grep | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 9
193 hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 10
194 id-utils | [] [] [] | 3
195 indent | [] [] [] [] | 4
196 libc | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 7
197 m4 | [] [] [] [] [] | 5
198 make | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 6
199 music | [] [] | 2
200 ptx | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 8
201 recode | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 9
202 sh-utils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 7
203 sharutils | [] [] [] [] [] | 5
204 tar | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 10
205 texinfo | [] | 1
206 textutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 9
207 wdiff | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 8
208 `-------------------------------------------------'
209 16 languages cs da de en es fi fr it ja ko nl no pl pt sl sv
210 27 packages 3 2 24 1 17 1 26 2 1 11 20 9 19 7 7 17 167
211
212 Some counters in the preceding matrix are higher than the number of
213 visible blocks let us expect. This is because a few extra PO files are
214 used for implementing regional variants of languages, or language
215 dialects.
216
217 For a PO file in the matrix above to be effective, the package to
218 which it applies should also have been internationalized and
219 distributed as such by its maintainer. There might be an observable
220 lag between the mere existence a PO file and its wide availability in a
221 distribution.
222
223 If August 1997 seems to be old, you may fetch a more recent copy of
224 this `ABOUT-NLS' file on most GNU archive sites.
225